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Oxidative stress biomarkers profile (OSBP)

OSPB is a valid method for predicting complications during pregnancy associated to free radicals (FR) generation. OSBP has been used to early identify high risk pregnancy and to predict preterm birth (Longini, M., Perrone, S., Kenanidis, A., Vezzosi, P., Marzocchi, B., Petraglia, F., Centini, G., and Buonocore, G. (2005) Isoprostanes in amniotic fluid: a predictive marker for fetal growth restriction in pregnancy, Free Radic Biol Med 38, 1537-1541; Longini, M., Perrone, S., Vezzosi, P., Marzocchi, B., Kenanidis, A., Centini, G., Rosignoli, L., and Buonocore, G. (2007) Association between oxidative stress in pregnancy and preterm premature rupture of membranes, Clin Biochem 40, 793-797; Perrone, S., Tataranno, M. L., Negro, S., Longini, M., Marzocchi, B., Proietti, F., Iacoponi, F., Capitani, S., and Buonocore, G. (2010) Early identification of the risk for free radical-related diseases in preterm newborns, Early Hum Dev 86, 241-244).

OSBP include:

- Prostanoids profile: prostanoids are a family of lipid mediators generated by the action of cyclooxygenase on long-chain unsaturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid. Prostanoids are generated widely in response to diverse stimuli and, acting in a paracrine or autocrine manner, play important roles in normal physiology and disease. The lipid peroxidation end-products isoprostanes (IsoPs) have a major pathogenetic relevance. IsoPs are a unique series of prostaglandin-like compounds generated, via a FR-catalyzed mechanism, from a number of different polyunsaturated fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid, adrenic acid (AdA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Plasma F2-IsoPs originating from AA are considered as an index of generalized lipid peroxidation, whereas the IsoPs originating from DHA are usually termed F4-NeuroPs due to its main localization in the nervous tissue, F2-dihomo-IsoPs, deriving from AdA oxidation, have been characterized as potential biomarkers of FR damage to the myelin in the human brain (Solberg, R., Longini, M., Proietti, F., Vezzosi, P., Saugstad, O. D., and Buonocore, G. (2012) Resuscitation with supplementary oxygen induces oxidative injury in the cerebral cortex, Free Radic Biol Med 53, 1061-1067). IsoPs have been measured in body fluids such as urine and blood, as well as in brain and liver tissues. Currently, gas chromatography(GC)-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography (HPLC)-mass spectrometry are the most accurate methods for identifying and quantifying IsoPs in biological fluids(plasma, urine).

- Non-Protein Bound Iron (NPBI): iron is a paradox in living systems, being essential for a wide variety of metabolic processes (oxygen transport, electron transport, DNA synthesis, etc.) but also a catalyst of chemical reactions, causing the release of hydroxyl radicals by superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, possibly via iron-oxygen complexes, with potential for oxidative stress and cell damage. As iron ions cannot exist in plasma, the term "free iron" was introduced to indicate a low-molecular-weight iron form, free of high-affinity binding to plasma proteins. A lowering of plasma pH, as occurs during ischemia, a frequent event in preterm newborns, releases iron, producing FR. These free radicals release even more iron by mobilizing it from ferritin, causing a cascade of iron release and FR production with the potential for extensive cell damage. Interest in the pro-oxidative nature of NPBI led our laboratory to the development of an assay for its detection in small samples of biological fluids (Paffetti, P., Perrone, S., Longini, M., Ferrari, A., Tanganelli, D., Marzocchi, B., and Buonocore, G. (2006) Non-protein-bound iron detection in small samples of biological fluids and tissues, Biol Trace Elem Res 112, 221-232). Our previous studies showed that NPBI predispose the newborn to OS through the Fenton and Haber-Weiss reactions, which means that NPBI is a reliable index (with 100% sensitivity and specificity) to early predict risk for brain injury (Buonocore, G., Perrone, S., Longini, M., Paffetti, P., Vezzosi, P., Gatti, M. G., and Bracci, R. (2003) Non protein bound iron as early predictive marker of neonatal brain damage, Brain 126, 1224-1230).

- Advanced Oxidative Protein Products (AOPP): the oxidative damage to proteins is quantifiable, as measured by formation of AOPP and it has provided a more accurate index with which to compare the effects of reactive oxygen species than has been available previously. AOPP were proposed as one of the possible markers of oxidative injury, which originates under oxidative and carbonyl stress and increase global inflammatory activity (Perrone, S., Tei, M., Longini, M., Santacroce, A., Turrisi, G., Proietti, F., Felici, C., Picardi, A., Bazzini, F., Vasarri, P., and Buonocore, G. (2014) Lipid and protein oxidation in newborn infants after lutein administration, Oxid Med Cell Longev 2014, 781454).



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